Fantasy Coffins  迦納的特色棺材


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2015/10/13 第233期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱


優惠活動訊息:見訊息
   

Fantasy Coffins  迦納的特色棺材

by Paul Hines

These colorful coffins are putting the "fun" in funerals.
這些色彩繽紛的棺材為葬禮增添了『趣味』。

  Benjamin Franklin famously said that nothing is certain except death and taxes. There is no known way to enjoy paying taxes, but in Ghana, a small country on the west coast of Africa, the locals have a _(1)_ way to celebrate a person’s life after he or she dies. In contrast to the simple yet luxurious wooden boxes _(2)_ at funerals in most parts of the world, the Ghanaian people use fantasy coffins.
  Fantasy coffins _(3)_ all shapes, sizes, and colors. A coffin will take two to six weeks to produce, depending on the _(4)_ of the construction and the carpenters‘ level of experience. In fact, the only rule for a fantasy coffin is that it should be made to represent the life of the deceased. For example, family and friends may bid a fond _(5)_ to an airline pilot in a biplane coffin. A soldier may be buried in a tank or a battleship, or a musician may be placed inside a grand piano- or guitar-shaped coffin. Only people who have achieved success and are the head of a family are _(6)_ to have a fantasy coffin. So, a funeral with a fantasy coffin is considered a sign of status.
  The talented individuals who _(7)_ the coffins are thought of as elite artists not only in Ghana but also around the world. They are respected because they pay such attention to detail even though they know their art will only be seen on the day of the funeral and then be buried forever.

1. (A) hostile  (B) novel  (C) plain  (D) mean
2. (A) used  (B) use  (C) using  (D) to use
3. (A) go after  (B) come in  (C) show off  (D) get by
4. (A) priority  (B) generosity  (C) responsibility  (D) complexity
5. (A) look  (B) dream  (C) farewell  (D) memory
6. (A) limited  (B) exposed  (C) sentenced  (D) permitted
7. (A) relieve  (B) handcraft  (C) charge  (D) trade

 
  1. There is no known way to enjoy paying taxes, but in Ghana, a small country on the west coast of Africa, the locals have a novel way to celebrate a person’s life after he or she dies.
    沒有已知的方法來享受繳稅這件事,但在位於非洲西海岸的迦納小國裡,當地人有一種新穎的方式於某人往生後來頌揚他(她)的一生。
    理由:
    a. (A) hostile a. 不友善的;懷有敵意的
    衍: be hostile to / toward(s)…  對……懷有敵意
    Why is Mia so hostile to the new secretary?
    為什麼蜜雅對新來的祕書這麼不友善?
    (B) novel a. 新穎的
    That’s really a novel idea, but I don’t know how feasible it is.
    那真是個有創意的點子,但我不知道可行性如何。
    (C) plain a. 樸素的
    Although I think this dress is plain, my boyfriend thinks it is beautiful.
    雖然我認為這件洋裝很樸素,我男友卻覺得很好看。
    (D) mean a. 刻薄的;不善良的
    It was mean of Wendy to write such negative comments about Mike’s article.
    溫蒂給麥克的文章如此負面的評語真是刻薄。
    b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。
  2. In contrast to the simple yet luxurious wooden boxes used at funerals in most parts of the world, the Ghanaian people use fantasy coffins.
    與世界上大部份地區於葬禮上使用的那種簡單卻又豪華的木棺材相比,迦納人使用特色棺材。
    理由:
    a. 原句實等於:
    In contrast to the simple yet luxurious wooden boxes which are used at funerals in most parts of the world…
    上列劃線的部份為關係代名詞 which 引導的形容詞子句。可將 which 省略,之後的動詞 are 變成現在分詞 being,而 being 亦可省略。
    b. 根據上述, (A) 項應為正選。
  3. Fantasy coffins come in all shapes, sizes, and colors.
    特色棺材有各種不同的形狀、大小以及顏色。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    come in ( sizes / colors… )  (某物)有……(尺寸/顏色……)
    This shirt comes in five different colors.
    這件襯衫有五種不同的顏色。
    b. 其他選項:
    (A) go after  追求
    (C) show off  炫耀
    (D) get by  (勉強)過活
    c. 根據上述用法,(B) 項應為正選。
  4. A coffin will take two to six weeks to produce, depending on the complexity of the construction and the carpenters’ level of experience.
    一口棺材須費時二到六週的時間來製作,製作時間取決於構造的複雜性與木匠的經驗水平。
    理由:
    a. (A) priority n. 優先考慮的事
    衍: a top priority  最優先/重要的事物
    Taking good care of her children is Gina’s top priority now.
    照顧好子女是吉娜目前的第一要務。
    (B) generosity n. 慷慨
    Jerry is adored by his friends because of his generosity.
    傑瑞的個性慷慨大方,因此深受朋友喜愛。
    (C) responsibility n. 責任
    衍: take responsibility for…  承擔起……的責任
    George took responsibility for what he had done.
    喬治為他所做的一切負責。
    (D) complexity n. 複雜性
    The complexity of its grammatical structure makes this sentence difficult to understand.
    複雜的文法結構使得這個句子很難懂。
    b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。
  5. For example, family and friends may bid a fond farewell to an airline pilot in a biplane coffin.
    舉例來說,家人和朋友可能會將客機駕駛員置於雙翼飛機棺材內與之惜別。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    bid farewell to…  向……道別
    同: say goodbye to…
    bid vt. 向……表示,祝(三態為:bid, bade, bidden。
    亦有人三態均採 bid 一字)
    farewell n. 告別
    We bid our last farewell to our good friend at her funeral.
    我們在好友的喪禮中向她做最後一次的告別。
    b. 根據上述用法,(C) 項應為正選。
  6. Only people who have achieved success and are the head of a family are permitted to have a fantasy coffin.
    唯有取得成就的人及一家之主才被允許擁有一口特色棺材。
    理由:
    a. (A) limit vt. 限制;限定
    衍: limit A to B  將 A 限制在 B
    The school limits the number of students per class to 30.
    該校把每班學生人數限制在三十人。
    (B) expose vt. 使曝露/接觸(與介詞 to 並用)
    衍: expose A to B  將 A 曝露於/接觸 B
    To improve your English, you should expose yourself to more English movies and TV shows.
    為了讓英文進步,你應該多接觸英文電影與電視節目。
    (C) sentence vt. 判刑 & n. 刑期
    衍: be sentenced to death  被判死刑
    be sentenced to life (imprisonment)  被判無期徒刑(終身監禁)
    be sentenced to + 時間 + in prison  被判……(時間)有期徒刑
    Shockingly, the murderer was sentenced to only 10 years in prison.
    令人震驚的是,那名殺人犯只被判十年有期徒刑。
    (D) permit vt. 允許
    衍: permit / allow sb to V  允許某人做……
    The teacher permitted Sean to hand in his report a day late.
    老師允許尚恩可以晚一天交報告。
    b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。
  7. The talented individuals who handcraft the coffins are thought of as elite artists not only in Ghana but also around the world.
    這些才華橫溢、手工製作棺材的人不僅在迦納被認為是傑出的藝術家,在世界各地亦是如此。
    理由:
    a. (A) relieve vt. 緩和,減輕
    I had to lie on my side to relieve the pressure in my lower back.
    我必須側躺以減輕我下背部承受的壓力。
    (B) handcraft vt. 用手工製作
    衍: handicraft n. 手工藝品
    I bought some traditional handicrafts home as souvenirs.
    我買了一些傳統手工藝品回家當作紀念品。
    (C) charge vt. 收費
    If you order NT$2,000 worth of products, we won’t charge you for the delivery.
    如果您訂購價值新臺幣兩千元的產品,我們就不會收運費。
    (D) trade vt. 貿易;交易
    衍: trade A for B  以 A 交換 B
    = exchange A for B
    Jim traded his comic book for his brother’s new toy car.
    吉姆用他的漫畫書和弟弟交換新玩具車。
    b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。
  1. fantasy n. 幻想
    Some girls have fantasies of being rescued by a knight in shining armor.
    有些女孩幻想著能被穿著閃亮盔甲的騎士所拯救。
    *rescue vt. & n. 救援,拯救
  2. coffin n. 棺木
  3. funeral n. 喪禮
    Bright clothes are not suitable for funerals.
    參加喪禮時不適合穿鮮豔的衣服。
  4. luxurious a. 奢華的
    Ray bought a luxurious mansion for his parents after he made a fortune investing in real estate.
    投資不動產致富後,小雷買了一棟豪宅給他的雙親。
    *real estate n. 房地產(集合名詞,不可數)
  5. construction n. 建築,建造
    衍: under construction  建造中,施工中
    The road is under construction, so a detour has been set up.
    這條道路正在施工,所以設置了一條替代道路。
    *detour n. 繞道,繞行的路
    take a detour  繞道而行(= make a detour)
  6. carpenter n. 木匠
    衍: carpentry n. 木工手藝
  7. represent vt. 代表
    同: stand for…
    The painting represents the pain everyone faces when they are under pressure.
    這幅畫代表了每個人在面臨壓力時的痛苦。
  8. the deceased  已故者
    deceased a. 死亡的,已故的
  9. fond a. 愉快的;喜歡的
    衍: be fond of…  喜愛……
    Kim is really fond of heavy metal music.
    小金真的很喜歡重金屬音樂。
  10. bury vt. 埋葬;使投入,使埋首(三態為:bury, buried, buried。)
    衍: bury sb alive  活埋某人
    be buried alive  被活埋
    be buried in…  埋首於……
    burial n. 埋葬;葬禮
    Because of the earthquake, hundreds of people were buried alive.
    數百人因為這場地震被活埋。
    John is a devoted employee. Whenever you see him, he is buried in his work.
    約翰是個很認真的員工。你看到他的時候,他都埋首於工作。
  11. individual n. 個人 & a. 個人的
    They discussed the rights of the individual versus the rights of the group.
    他們討論個人權益和團體權益的衝突。
    *versus prep. 對抗
    The teacher couldn’t give the students individual attention because the class was too big.
    由於這個班太大,老師無法個別去照料學生。

Ghana n. 迦納
Ghanaian a. 迦納的 & n. 迦納人
biplane n. 雙翼飛機
tank n. 坦克車;油箱
battleship n. 戰艦
elite a. 傑出的,優秀的 & n. 精英(集合名詞,不可數)
the elite of society  社會的精英

  1. on the coast of…  在……的海岸
    coast n. 海岸
    Hualien is on the eastern coast of Taiwan.
    花蓮坐落在臺灣的東海岸。
  2. in contrast to…  與……成對比/對照
    In contrast to my friend’s lifestyle, mine seems rather dull.
    與我朋友的生活方式相對照之下,我的生活似乎相當無趣。
  3. be thought of as…  被視為……
    同: be seen as…
    = be looked upon as…
    = be regarded as…
    The doctor is thought of as a leader in the field of cancer treatment.
    這名醫生被視為癌症治療領域的權威。
  4. pay attention to…  注意/留意……
    Please pay attention to the speed limit. You don’t want to get a ticket.
    請注意時速限制。你不會想吃罰單的。


迦納的特色棺材
這些色彩繽紛的棺材為葬禮增添了『趣味』。
  班傑明.富蘭克林曾說過一句名言,『除了死亡和稅收之外,沒有什麼是確定的。』沒有已知的方法來享受繳稅這件事,但在位於非洲西海岸的迦納小國裡,當地人有一種新穎的方式於某人往生後來頌揚他(她)的一生。與世界上大部份地區於葬禮上使用的那種簡單卻又豪華的木棺材相比,迦納人使用特色棺材。
  特色棺材有各種不同的形狀、大小以及顏色。一口棺材須費時二到六週的時間來製作,製作時間取決於構造的複雜性與木匠的經驗水平。事實上,特色棺材唯一的規則是,它應該要能代表死者的一生。舉例來說,家人和朋友可能會將客機駕駛員置於雙翼飛機棺材內與之惜別。軍人可能會被置於坦克或戰艦的棺材中下葬,或者音樂家可能被放置在一個大型的鋼琴或吉他外形的棺材裡。唯有取得成就的人及一家之主才被允許擁有一口特色棺材。因此,有特色棺材的葬禮被視為身份地位的象徵。
  這些才華橫溢、手工製作棺材的人不僅在迦納被認為是傑出的藝術家,在世界各地亦是如此。因為即使他們知道他們的藝術品只會在葬禮當天被看見、接著就永遠被掩埋,他們還是如此地注重每一個細節,因此他們受到尊重。
答案: 1. B 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. C 6. D 7. B

 
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