Tipping Our Hats to the Ampelmannchen 馬路英雄──小綠人


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2015/08/25 第226期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱


優惠活動訊息:見訊息
   

Tipping Our Hats to the Ampelmännchen  馬路英雄 ── 小綠人

by Ivy Liu

Germany’s beloved hat-wearing stoplight man has directed traffic for more than 50 years.
德國深受喜愛的戴帽小綠人已經指揮交通五十多個年頭了。

  All over Germany, the welcoming image of the Ampelmännchen, or little traffic light man, helps to let people know when to safely cross the street. Originally _(1)_ in East Germany, it is one of the few images that survived the 1990 German reunification. The creator of the Ampelmännchen, Karl Peglau, was a traffic psychologist. He noticed that a high number of road deaths were _(2)_ pedestrian traffic because the same traffic lights were being used for both people crossing the street and vehicles. An estimated 8.5 percent of the population in the world is colorblind, which often means they cannot tell red _(3)_ green. Also, there are more pedestrians than there are drivers, as the elderly, the handicapped, and children are less likely _(4)_. Peglau thought that traffic lights should be made clearer to keep people safe. Therefore, the Ampelmännchen was designed and first used in 1961.
  Taiwan has its own Ampelmännchen called Xiaoluren, or little green man. It was officially called the Pedestrian Countdown Display, and first appeared in Taipei in 1999 before being used across the island. The Xiaoluren also wears a hat, but it is animated to look like it is walking, unlike its stationary German _(5)_. As the countdown gets closer to zero, the Xiaoluren walks faster and faster, _(6)_ in a rush.
  Nowadays, the Ampelmännchen does not just greet people in the streets. Markus Heckhausen, a graphic designer, _(7)_ the patent from Peglau in 1995. He now runs a company that sells 500 types of Ampelmännchen-branded items. Thanks to Heckhausen, anyone in the world can have a small piece of East Germany in their home.

1. (A) creating  (B) being creating  (C) creates  (D) created
2. (A) related to  (B) combined with  (C) catered to  (D) qualified for
3. (A) on  (B) in  (C) from  (D) over
4. (A) to drive  (B) drove  (C) driving  (D) driven
5. (A) descendant  (B) counterpart  (C) receptionist  (D) ancestor
6. (A) as for  (B) as to  (C) as of  (D) as if
7. (A) betrayed  (B) purchased  (C) clarified  (D) snatched

 
  1. Originally created in East Germany, it is one of the few images that survived the 1990 German reunification.
    交通號誌小人原創於東德,它是少數在 1990 年兩德統一後倖存的圖像之一。
    理由:
    a. 原句實為:
    "Originally it was created in East Germany, it is one of the few images…",但如此一來會造成兩句接在一起卻無連接詞連接的錯誤句構。
    b. 補救之道為將第一個子句依照分詞句構化簡法變成分詞片語,其法則如下:將第一個子句中相同的主詞刪除,之後的動詞要變成現在分詞,若該動詞為 be 動詞時,變成現在分詞 being 後可省略。故刪除第一個子句的主詞 it 後,將 be 動詞 was 改成現在分詞 being 後並予以省略,即成本句。
    Attracted by Julia’s smile, Jason walked up to her.
    傑森被茱莉亞的笑容吸引而走向她。
    c. 根據上述用法,(D) 項應為正選。
  2. He noticed that a high number of road deaths were related to pedestrian traffic because the same traffic lights were being used for both people crossing the street and vehicles.
    他注意到為數眾多的道路死亡事故都與行人交通有關,因為穿越馬路的行人與汽車皆使用相同的交通信號燈。
    理由:
    a. (A) be related to…  與……有關,涉及……
    A lot of evidence has shown that the suspect is related to the murder.
    許多證據顯示嫌犯與這起謀殺案脫不了關係。
    (B) be combined with…  和……結合
    衍: combine A with B  結合 A 與 B
    The teacher combines games with learning, so his students always have a lot of fun in his class.
    那名老師結合遊戲與學習,因此他的學生在課堂上總是非常開心。
    (C) cater to…  迎合……(無被動用法)
    The hotel caters to people who want to go on vacation with their pets.
    這家飯店迎合想帶寵物度假的人們。
    (D) be qualified for…  有資格取得/接受??
    同: qualify for…
    If I finish the degree, I’ll be qualified for the position.
    = If I finish the degree, I’ll qualify for the position.
    如果我完成學位,我就有資格得到這個職位。
    b. 根據語意及用法,空格前有 be 動詞 were,故 (C) 項不予考慮。根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。
  3. An estimated 8.5 percent of the population in the world is colorblind, which often means they cannot tell red from green.
    全球估計有百分之八點五的人口是色盲,這通常意指他們無法分辨紅色與綠色。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    tell A from B  分辨/區分 A 與 B
    同: tell the difference between A and B
    = tell A and B apart
    = distinguish A from B
    = distinguish between A and B
    Nancy couldn’t tell a toad from a frog.
    南西無法分辨蟾蜍和青蛙的不同。
    b. 根據上述用法,(C) 項應為正選。
  4. Also, there are more pedestrians than there are drivers, as the elderly, the handicapped, and children are less likely to drive.
    此外,由於老年人、身障人士以及孩童不太可能駕駛,所以行人的數量比駕駛人還要更多。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    be less likely to V  不太可能……
    Ben is less likely to take public transportation now that he has a car.
    阿班不太可能搭乘大眾運輸工具,因為他現在有車了。
    b. 空格前有 are less likely,得知空格內應置 to 及原形動詞 drive,因此 (A) 項應為正選。
  5. The Xiaoluren also wears a hat, but it is animated to look like it is walking, unlike its stationary German counterpart.
    這個小綠人同樣也戴著一頂帽子,但看起來就像是在走路的動畫,而不像德國的小綠人是靜止不動的。
    理由:
    a. (A) descendant n. 後代,後裔
    It was not until Ken found his family tree that he realized he was a descendant of Napoleon.
    直到小肯發現自己的族譜,他才知道自己是拿破崙的後裔。
    (B) counterpart n. 相對應的人或物
    The president’s counterparts in Asia will meet with him next week in Tokyo.
    亞洲國家的領導人將於下星期和該總統在東京會面。
    (C) receptionist n. 接待員
    Henry and Grace are checking in at a hotel and talking to a receptionist.
    亨利和葛蕾絲正在飯店辦理住房手續並與一名接待員說話。
    (D) ancestor n. 祖先
    Al compiled information about his ancestors to create a family tree.
    艾爾蒐集了祖先的資料以製作家譜。
    *compile vt. 蒐集(資料);匯編
    b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。
  6. As the countdown gets closer to zero, the Xiaoluren walks faster and faster, as if in a rush.
    當倒數計秒越來越接近零的時候,小綠人好似很匆忙一樣,會走得越來越快。
    理由:
    a. (A) as for…  至於……;就……而言
    Everyone is going hiking today. As for me, I will stay home listening to music.
    今天大家都會去健行。至於我,我會待在家裡聽音樂。
    As for Mark, he’s optimistic about the economy.
    就馬克而言,他對整個經濟狀況還蠻樂觀的。
    (B) as to…  提到……
    As to money, we will simply have to borrow some from Mr. Smith.
    提到錢,我們只好去向史密斯先生借一些。
    (C) as of + 時間  自某時起
    As of next month, the price of gas will be higher.
    自下個月起,瓦斯費將會調漲。
    (D) as if...  彷彿/好像……
    同: as though…
    Steven looked as if nothing had happened.
    史帝夫看起來就像什麼事都不曾發生過。
    b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。
  7. Markus Heckhausen, a graphic designer, purchased the patent from Peglau in 1995.
    平面設計師馬庫斯.黑克豪森於 1995 年向佩格勞購買專利權。
    理由:
    a. (A) betray vt. 背叛
    Amy felt betrayed after she found out what Jim had been trying to hide from her.
    愛咪發現吉姆一直設法對她隱瞞的那件事後,覺得自己遭到了背叛。
    (B) purchase vt. 購買
    Jerry purchased a new flat-screen TV for his family.
    傑瑞為家人買了一臺新的平面電視。
    (C) clarify vt. 澄清,說明
    You need to clarify your intentions so we know what you really want.
    你必須說明你的目的,這樣我們才能知道你真正想要的是什麼。
    (D) snatch vt. 攫取,奪走,搶走
    The thief snatched the woman’s purse and ran.
    小偷搶了那名女子的皮包後拔腿就跑。
    b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。
  1. survive vt. 從……倖存 & vi. 存活下來
    It was tragic to hear that no one survived the plane crash.
    聽到無人自那場空難中生還真是令人悲痛。
    *tragic a. 令人悲痛的;悲劇的
    Eighty people were killed in the plane crash while 20 survived.
    這場空難中有八十人罹難,二十人生還。
  2. pedestrian n. 行人
    Many pedestrians just ignored the no-crossing sign and hurried across the busy street.
    許多行人對禁止穿越的路標不予理會,就這麼急忙地跨越那條繁忙的街道。
  3. colorblind a. 色盲的
  4. the handicapped  身心障礙者
    同: handicapped people
    handicapped a. 身心障礙的
    It is generally considered impolite to call people with disabilities "handicapped."
    稱呼身障人士為『殘障』通常被視作不禮貌。
    *disability n.(身心方面的)障礙
  5. officially adv. 正式地;官方地
    David and Judy officially announced their engagement yesterday.
    大衛和茱蒂昨天正式宣佈了他們訂婚的消息。
    *engagement n. 訂婚
  6. display n. 顯示;展覽
  7. animated a. 動畫的,會動的
  8. stationary a. 靜止的
    比較 stationery n. 文具(集合名詞,不可數)
    There is a stationary front, so it will be rainy for the next few days.
    因為有道滯留鋒,所以未來幾天都會下雨。
    Emily bought some stationery supplies for school over the weekend.
    艾蜜莉這週末購買了一些學校要用的文具。
  9. patent n. 專利 & vt. 取得……的專利
    My great-grandfather received a patent for several tools he invented.
    我曾祖父發明的若干項工具獲得了專利。
    Laura patented a new device that cuts and styles hair at the same time.
    蘿拉取得一項能同時剪髮及造型的新儀器專利。

Ampelmännchen  交通號誌小人(是前東德行人過馬路交通號誌上的圖案。紅色、立正的小人代表『停止』,綠色、大步走的小人代表『可前行』)
welcoming a. 親切的;宜人的
reunification n. 重新統一
psychologist n. 心理學家
countdown n. 倒數計秒
a graphic designer  平面設計師
graphic a. 繪圖的;平面設計的

  1. tip one’s hat to sb/sth  向某人/某物致敬
  2. an estimated + 數字  估計有……
    An estimated 300 guests went to our wedding ceremony last week.
    估計上週有三百名賓客參加我們的婚禮。
  3. in a rush  匆忙地
    同: in a hurry
    = in haste
    Ann left the party in a rush because her ex-boyfriend showed up with a new girl.
    小安匆忙離開派對,因為她的前男友帶著新女友出現。
  4. a piece of…  一片……
    同: a slice of…


馬路英雄 ── 小綠人
德國深受喜愛的戴帽小綠人已經指揮交通五十多個年頭了。
  放眼德國各地,交通號誌小人這個令人感到親切的圖像(或稱作小紅綠燈人)能夠讓大眾知道什麼時候可以安全地通過馬路。交通號誌小人原創於東德,它是少數在 1990 年兩德統一後倖存的圖像之一。交通號誌小人的創作人卡爾.佩格勞是一位交通心理學家。他注意到為數眾多的道路死亡事故都與行人交通有關,因為穿越馬路的行人與汽車皆使用相同的交通信號燈。全球估計有百分之八點五的人口是色盲,這通常意指他們無法分辨紅色與綠色。此外,由於老年人、身障人士以及孩童不太可能駕駛,所以行人的數量比駕駛人還要更多。佩格勞認為,紅綠燈應該設置得更加清楚易懂以保障大眾安全。因此,佩格勞設計出交通號誌小人且於 1961 年首次使用。
  臺灣擁有自己的交通號誌小人,稱作 Xiaoluren 或是小綠人。它的正式名稱為行人倒數計時顯示器,它在 1999 年首次於臺北問世,之後便運用在全臺各處。這個小綠人同樣也戴著一頂帽子,但看起來就像是在走路的動畫,而不像德國的小綠人是靜止不動的。當倒數計秒越來越接近零的時候,小綠人好似很匆忙一樣,會走得越來越快。
  時至今日,交通號誌小人不僅僅是在街上和人們打招呼。平面設計師馬庫斯.黑克豪森於 1995 年向佩格勞購買專利權。現在他經營著一家銷售五百款交通號誌小人品牌商品。多虧了黑克豪森,世界上的任何人都可以擁有『一小片的東德』放在家裡了。
答案: 1. D 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7. B

 
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